Uveitis is inflammation of the eye involving the uveal structures (iris, ciliary body and choroid). Anterior uveitis specifically refers to uveitis in the anterior segment of eye. Uveitis may also involve the posterior segment of the eye or entire eye (panuveitis). Clinical signs and symptoms of anterior uveitis may include pain, photophobia, blurry vision, conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber cells, anterior chamber flare, fibrin deposition and corneal endothelial inflammatory precipitates. Diseases associated with noninfectious uveitis include HLA-B27 spondyloarthropathies, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome.
Noninfectious Anterior Uveitis Treatment
Current treatment for noninfectious uveitis requires a combination of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory medications to manage the acute and chronic phases of the disease. For anterior uveitis, topical steroids such as prednisolone acetate are typically the first line of treatment. Periocular and intraocular steroid injections/implants may provide sustained delivery of medications. However, there is a need for safe and effective alternatives to corticosteroids as first line and adjunctive therapies for uveitis and other forms of ocular inflammation given the incidence of glaucoma, cataracts, ocular infections, and corneal ulcers associated with chronic corticosteroid use.
Accumulation of toxic aldehyde metabolites is associated with anterior uveitis and other ocular and systemic diseases. There is evidence that prevention of toxic aldehyde formation and accumulation may prevent inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative damage associated with ocular inflammatory disease.
In the second quarter of 2016, we announced positive data from our Phase II clinical trial of ADX-102 ophthalmic solution in patients with noninfectious anterior uveitis. ADX-102 reduced cell count in a manner comparable to standard-of-care topical corticosteroids, which are effective but toxic, leading to glaucoma and cataracts in many patients.