Uveitis is inflammation of the eye involving the uveal structures (iris, ciliary body and choroid). Anterior uveitis specifically refers to uveitis in the anterior segment of eye. Uveitis may also involve the posterior segment of the eye or entire eye (panuveitis). Clinical signs and symptoms of anterior uveitis may include pain, photophobia, blurry vision, conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber cells, anterior chamber flare, fibrin deposition and corneal endothelial inflammatory precipitates. Diseases associated with noninfectious uveitis include HLA-B27 spondyloarthropathies, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome.
Noninfectious Anterior Uveitis Treatment
Current treatment for noninfectious uveitis requires a combination of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory medications to manage the acute and chronic phases of the disease. For anterior uveitis, topical steroids such as prednisolone acetate are typically the first line of treatment. Periocular and intraocular steroid injections/implants may provide sustained delivery of medications. However, there is a need for safe and effective alternatives to corticosteroids as first line and adjunctive therapies for uveitis and other forms of ocular inflammation given the incidence of glaucoma, cataracts, ocular infections, and corneal ulcers associated with chronic corticosteroid use.
Accumulation of toxic aldehyde metabolites is associated with anterior uveitis and other ocular and systemic diseases. There is evidence that prevention of toxic aldehyde formation and accumulation may prevent inflammation and fibrosis associated with ocular inflammatory disease.
We announced positive data from our Phase II clinical trial of reproxalap ophthalmic solution and started enrollment for Phase 3 in patients with noninfectious anterior uveitis. reproxalap reduced cell count in a manner that was statistically noninterior to standard-of-care topical corticosteroids, which are effective but toxic, leading to glaucoma and cataracts in many patients.